This is a video about viruses and their forms.

  • "a microscopic particle that gets inside a cell and often destroys
the cell"
(Holt Life Science pg. 841)

  • "Many viruses cause diseases such as the common cold, flu,
and acquired immune deficiency syndrome <--AIDS
(Holt Life Science pg. 256)

  • Viruses have to reproduce by going to a *host* and destroying it
This is a picture of a virus attacking a host cell.


  • "a domain made up of prokaryotes that usually have a cell wall and that usually
reproduce by cell division; this domain aligns with the traditional kingdom"
( Holt Life Science pg. 832)

  • Bacteria has a cell wall which helps it stay it original shape
  • Bacteria are prokaryotes and do not have a nucleus

This bacteria diagram shows the major organelles.


  • "a domain made up of prokaryotes ( most of which are known to live in extreme enviroments)
that are distinguished from other prokaryotes by differences in their genetics and in the make-up
of their cell wall; the domain aligns with the traditional kingdom Archeabacteria"
( Holt Life Science pg. 832)

  • Archea are also prokaryotes and do not have a nucleus
  • They are called extremeophiles which live in extreme conditions

This is a picture of a archea.


This animal cell diagram shows the main organelles and other smaller organelles necessary for cell processing.

Animal Cell Organelles

  • Cell Membrane- protects the cell from its enviroment
  • Cytoskeleton- web of proteins in the cytoplasm
  • Nucleus- control center, contains the DNA of the cell
  • Ribosome- amino acids are hooked together to make proteins
  • Endoplasmic reticulum- makes lipids, breaks down drugs and other substances, and packages proteins for Golgi Complex
  • Mitochondrion- breaks down food molecules
  • Golgi complex- the organelle that processes and transports proteins out of the cell
  • Vesicle- small cavity that contains materials in the cell
  • Lysosome- digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders
(Holt Life Science)

This is a plant cell diagram. It also shows the organelles of the plant cell.

Plant Cell Organelles

  • Cell Wall- retains the cell's shape and form
  • Cloroplast- organelle where photosynthesis takes place
  • Large Central Vacuole- stores water and other materials
  • Photosynthesis- using light, carbon dioxide, and water to make there own food


  • " In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two nuclei, each of which has the same
number of chromosomes." (Holt Life Science pg.99)
Step 1 (Prophase)- "Mitosis begins. The nuclear membrane dissolves and the chromosomes
condense into rod-like structures." (Holt Life Science pg.100)
Step 2 (Metaphase)-"The chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell. Homologous chromosomes
pair up." (Holt Life Science pg.100)
Step 3 (Anaphase)- "The chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell"
Step 4 (Telophase)- "A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes
unwind. Mitosis is complete." (Holt Life Science pg.100)


  • "The process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by
two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells."
Step1: "Each chromosome is now made up of two identical chromatids. Similar chromosomes pair with one another, and
the paired homologous chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell." (Holt Life Science pg.128)
Step 2: "The chromosomes separate from their homologous partners and then move to opposite ends of the cell." (Holt Life
Science pg.128)
Step 3: " The nuclear membrane re-forms, and the cell divides. The paired chromatids are still joined."(Holt Life Science
Step 4: "Each cell contains one member of each homologous chromosome pair. The chromosomes are not copied again
between the two cell divisions."(Holt Life Science pg.129)
Step 5: "The chromosomes then line up at the equator of the cell" (Holt Life Science pg.129)
Step 6: "The chromatids pull apart and move to opposite ends of the cell. The nuclear membrane forms around the seperated
chromosomes, and the cells divide." (Holt Life Science pg.129)
Step 7: "The result is that four new cells have formed from the original single cell. Each new cell has half the number of chromo-
somes present in the original cell." (Holt Life Science pg.129)

Chapter 12


Introduction to Plants

Mosses, hornworts and liverworts are all non vascular plants. Non vascular plants are "the three
groups of plants(liverworts, hornworts and mosses) that lack specailized conducting tissues and
true roots, stem, and leaves." (Holt Life Science pg.302)
"A vascular plant is a plant that has specialized tissues that conduct materials from one part of the
plant to another." (Holt Life Science pg.302)
Non flowering seeds are called gynosperms and flowering plants are call angiosperms.
"A gymnosperm is a woody vascular seed plant that produces seeds within a fruit."
(Holt Life Science pg.302)

This is a picture of a leaf under a light micrograph.

photosynthesis- "The process in which plants, algae, and some bacteria use
sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food." (Holt Life Science pg.838)

Personal Information

Chipanzees are important to me because they have always been my favorite animal since I was a kid. An important fact about chimps is that they are the most "human like" animal on the planet..