Natalie's Web Page
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Viruses
Picture of the Flu


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Viruses are nonliving structures that attack cells and multiply by injecting RNA or DNA telling the cell to make multiple copies of the virus.





Bacteria
Bacteria are small single celled organisms that have a cell wall and do not have a well defined nucleus.
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  • Are prokaryotics
  • They do not have a membrane bound nucleus
  • They do not have membrane bound organelles
  • Smallest cell







Bacteria Classification and Characterization
-Shape

  • bacilli: rod-shaped
  • cocci: spherical
  • spirilla: curved walls
-Ability to form spores
-Method of energy production
-Nutritional requirements


Video of Bacteria





Archaeaarcheanz.gif


Archaea are small single celled organisms that have a cell wall and do not have a well defined nucleus. Archaea are similar to bacteria but have a different ribosome structure and tend to be extremophiles. Extremophiles can live in extreme conditions like high or low teperatures.

They are prokaryotics
They do not have a membrane bound nucleus
They do not have membrane bound organelles
Second smallest cell














Cells

Cells are the smallest unit of life that perform different functions.
Eukaryotics and prokaryotics are to types of cells. While eukaryotics have a nucleus and can be made up of one or more cells, prokaryotics are single celled and do not have a defined nucleus.
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Animal Cell

Cell Theory

  • All organisms are made of one or more cells.
  • The cell is the basic unit of all living things.
  • All cells come from existing cells.
Eukaryotic Cells
  • Animal cell
    plantcell450nz.jpg
    PLant Cell
  • Plant cell
  • Have a defined nucleus containing DNA
  • Have defined organelles
Prokaryotics

(Animal Cell)

  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • They do not have a defined nucleus
  • They do not have defined organelles
Kingdoms
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

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Animal Cell Structure
animalcell.jpg Animal Organelles and their Functions
Nucleus is the control center for the cell and contains the DNA.
Ribosome makes the protein in a cell by hooking together amino acids.
Cytoplasm is the fluid inside a cell.
Cell membrane is a layer of phospholipids that covers a cells surface and acts as a barrier.
Mitochondrion breaks down sugar to produce energy. The energy released is stored in ATP.
Cytoskeleton a web of protein in the cytoplasm. It acts as muscle and bone.
Golgi complex processes and transports protein and othe materials out of the cell.
Endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids, breaks down drugs, and packages protein for the Golgi complex.
Lysosome digests food particles, waste, cell parts, and foreign invaders.
Phospholipid is a lipid that contains phosphorus and is a structural component in the cell membranes.
Hydrophilic heads are water loving and form the outer part of the cell membrane.
Hydophobic tails are water fearing and form the inner part of the cell membrane.
Vesicle is a sac or small cavitiy with fluid usually filled in it's pouch.
(Structure of an animal cell)

Plant Cell Structure

Plant Organelles and their Functions
Cell wall acts as a barrier between the cell's environment and the cell membrane. It is made up of cellulose fibers.plant_cellnz.jpg
Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and convert it into fixed chemical energy in the sugar synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. This is a process called photosynthesis.
Large central vacuole stores water and other materials.
Mitochondrion break down sugar to produce energy. The energy released is stored in ATP.
Ribosome makes the protein in a cell by hooking together amino acids.
Golgi complex processes and transports proteins and other materials out of the cell.
Nucleus is the control center for the cell and contains the DNA.
Endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids, breaks down drugs, and packages protein for the Golgi complex.
Cellulose fibers are complex sugars and make up plant cell walls.
Cell membrane is a layer of phospholipids that covers a cells surface and acts as a barrier.
Cytoplasm is the fluid inside a cell.
Cytoskeleton is a web of protein in the cytoplasm. It acts as muscle and bone.
Phospholipids is a lipid that contains phosphorus and is a structure component in the cell membranes.

Benifits of being Multicellular

  • Larger size
  • Larger organisms are prey for fewer predators
  • Larger predators eat a wider variety of of prey
  • Longer life
  • Specialization makes the cells more efficient

Tissues

  • A tissue is a group of cells that work together to perform a specific function.
  • Animal tissues: nerve tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue, and protective tissue.
  • Plant tissue: transport tissue, protective tissue, and ground tissue.
  • Two or more tissues working together to perform a specific function is called a organ system



Mitosis
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external image mitosisnz.jpg
Mitosis is the division of the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell into two identical nuclei. Mitosis is a continuous process that is divided into 5 phases
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis
Mitosis has two daughter cells which are genetically identical to the parent cell. The daughter cells both have the same type and amount of chromosomes. Genetic information is transferred from parent to daughter.

Meiosisexternal image meiosisces.jpg

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Meiosis is a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus. Meiosis results in the production of sex cells.

Before meiosis begins, the chromosomes are in a threadlike form and each chromosome makes a copy of itself. This forms two halves called chromatids. Then the chromosomes thicken and shorten and soon the nucleus membrane disappears.

The chromosomes are made up of two identical chromatids and the similar chromosomes pair with each other to line up at the equator of the edge.

Next the chromosomes seperate froom their homologous partners and move to opposite sides of the cell.

When the nuclear membrane re-forms the cell divides but the paired chromatids are still joined.

Each cell contains one member








Chimpanzee
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I appreciate chimpanzees because they are used in experiments for scientists to see if certain products are safe for humans. I think that is horrible and no animal should be forced to be a test experiment for humans. People take chimpanzees out of their natural habitat and use them for pets or force them to act. I don't think that's right because chimps are wild so they should stay in the wild. Each day their population decreases and I think it would be a huge loss if they were ever to become extinct. Chimpanzees are also very smart and learn quickly plus they remind me of my brother.
Facts:
Only wild Chimpanzees live in Africa
Chimpanzees live in groups or communities but some wander by themselves before joining a new group
The behavior of Chimpanzees are very similar to that of humans








Bibliography
Science textbook (Holt Life Science)
Outl
ine Brevoort