Bobby



Viruses

Viruses have two or three parts, all viruses have genes made from either DNA or RNA. All have a protein coat that protects these genes, and some have a wall of fat that surrounds them when they are outside a cell. The picture below is a virus cell.

external image virus2.JPG


Bacteria

Bacteria are microscopic organisms whose single cells have neither a membrane-bounded nucleus nor other membrane-bounded organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts. The picture below is a bacteria cell.
http://www.ict-science-to-society.org/Pathogenomics/images/bacteria_cell.jpg
http://www.ict-science-to-society.org/Pathogenomics/images/bacteria_cell.jpg

Bacteria Cell Videos

On the video below, it shows a video of bacteria cell reproduction, or multiplication of bacteria cells.

Archea

Archea are a group of single-celled Micro organisms. Archea have no nucleus or any other organelles just like bacteria cells and prokaryotic cells. This picture is a few archea cells.

http://web.mit.edu/12.000/www/m2005/a2/finalwebsite/environ/bio/archea.gif
http://web.mit.edu/12.000/www/m2005/a2/finalwebsite/environ/bio/archea.gif

Animal Cell

An animal cell contains many different types of organisms containing many organelles. Some are the nucleus which is the central control center of the cell AKA the brain.
cell.gif


Animal Organelles

Cytoplasm is basically the substance that fills the cell. It is eighty percent water and is mostly a jelly-like substance. Cytoplasm is the substance of life that serves as a molecuar soup in which the cell's organelles are suspended and held together by a fatty membrane. The cytoplasm is found inside the cell membrane.
The Golgi Complex is a net-like structure in the cytoplasm in animal cells.
The Vacuole is a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid.
The Mitochondrion is an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
The Lysosome is a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after death.
The Centriole is a small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most Eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis, the new pair of centrioles moving ahead of the spindle to opposite poles of the cell as the cell divides: identical in internal structure to a basel body.
The Nucleus is the main central command of the cell. It controls the movements and controls of the cell.
The Ribosomes are the main part of RNA and p rotein that are found in all cells.
The Endoplasmic Reticulum is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an inter connected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae.

  • A person with a cold can spread the infection by coughing and/or sneezing.

  • Bacteria or viruses can be passed on by touching or shaking hands with another person.
  • Touching food with dirty hands will also allow viruses or bacteria from the intestine to spread.

  • Body fluids such as blood, saliva and semen can contain the infecting organisms and transmission of such fluids, for example by injection or sexual contact, is important, particularly for viral infections like hepatitis or AIDS.
How to prevent spreading of diseases onto you, or your body:
  • Wash your hands thoroughly (often one of the best ways to avoid catching a cold).

  • Shaking hands with someone who has a cold is risky, so avoid rubbing your eyes or nose afterwards.

  • Food should be cooked or cooled down as quickly as possible.

  • Vegetables and meat must be stored separately and prepared on separate chopping boards.

  • Meat should preferably be served well-done.

  • Remember that food with these invisible organisms does not necessarily smell bad.

  • Some organisms are killed as the food is cooked, but they can still leave toxic substances that may cause diarrhea and vomiting.


This video below is about the bacteria cells and what they do and how they live.

Animal Cell Diagram

cell.gifAbove is a diagram of an Animal Cell. It has a number of vocab terms that you might need to know if you want to properly understand the Cell diagrams.Cytoplasm-Cytoplasm is basically the substance that fills the cell. It is eighty percent water and is mostly a jelly-like substance. Cytoplasm is the substance of life that serves as a molecuar soup in which the cell's organelles are suspended and held tog ether by a fatty membrane. The cytoplasm is found inside the cell membrane.Golgi Complex-The Golgi Complex is a net-like structure in the cytoplasm in animal cells.Vacuole-The Vacuole is a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid.Mitochondrion-The Mitochondrion is an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.Lysosome-The Lysosome is a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after death.Centriole- The Centriole is a small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most Eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis, the new pair of centrioles moving ahead of the spindle to opposite poles of the cell as the cell divides: identical in internal structure to a basel body.Nucleus-The Nucleus is the main central command of the cell. It controls the movements and controls of the cell.Ribosomes-The Ribosomes are the main part of RNA and protein that are found in all cells.Endoplasmic Reticulum-The Endoplasmic Reticulum is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an inter connected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae.

DNA

This picture below is DNA and it shows how it swirls and the trans of the cell in the middle.

dna.jpg

Plant Cell Diagram


http://www.euindiaaviationsummit.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/plant-cell-diagram-small.jpg
http://www.euindiaaviationsummit.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/plant-cell-diagram-small.jpg


A large central vacuole, a water-filled volume enclosed by a membrane known as the tonoplast maintains the cell's turgor, controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap, stores useful material and digests waste proteins and organelles.
A cell wall composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, pectin and in many cases lignin, and secreted by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane. This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi (which are made of chitin), and of bacteria, which are made of peptidoglycan.
Specialised cell-cell communication pathways known as plasmodesmata , pores in the primary cell wall through which the plasmalemma and endoplasmic reticulum of adjacent cells are continuous.
Plastids, notably the chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll and the biochemical systems for light harvesting and photosynthesis, but also amyloplastsstarch storage, elaioplasts specialized for fat storage and chromoplasts specialized for synthesis and storage of pigments. As in mitochondria, which have a genome encoding 37 genes plastids have their own genomes of about 100-120 unique genes and probably arose as prokaryoticendosymbionts living in the cells of an early eukaryotic ancestor of the land plants and algae.
Cell division by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell plate late in cytokinesis is characteristic of land plants and a few groups of algae, notably the Charophytes and the Order Trentepohliales
The sperm of Bryophytes have flagellae similar to those in animals, but higher plants, (including Gymnosperms and flowering plants) lack the flagellaecentrioles that are present in animal cells.
specialized for and


200 words on viruses, bacteria, cells, organelles, and the function of organelles.

On the Animal cell there are 9 parts of the cell that I'm going to talk about, and they are Nucleus, Lysosome, Ribosome, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Vacuole, Golgi Complex, Cytoplasm, and the Mitochondrion. The Viruses and bacteria can't be seen by the naked eye, and they can't multiply on their own, so they have to invade a "host" cell, and take over it's machinery in order to be able to make more virus particles. Viruses contain genetic material called "DNA" or "RNA" which is surrounded by a protective coat of protein. They are capable of latching onto cells and getting inside them. Now to the mitochondrion. The mitochondrion is a membrane inclosed organelle found in Eukaryotic cells. This animal or plant cell organelle can range from 1 to 10 micrometers in size. Mitochondrion are sometimes referred to as the "Cell power plant". They are called this because they create most of the cell's adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. The ATP is used as a chemical energy. The mitochondrion are also used for cell death, signaling, cellular differentiation, also they are a part of the cell cycle and cell growth. The Nucleus is in Eukaryotic cells and is a cell membrane enclosed organelle and it is the main power source for a cell. It is the main controller of the whole cell and it makes the cell live, grow, e at, sleep, and even move around. It also holds most of the cell's genetic material, or its called DNA. They are also a big part of the creation of ribosomes. More about the ribosomes are that they can also be called "RIBONUCLEIC ACID" are complexes of RNA and protein that are found in ALL cells. Ribosomes from bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, have very different structure and RNA.
Viral and bacterial infections are both spread in basically the same ways.
external image Bald_Eagle_lg2.jpg