The cell is one of the most basic units of life. There are millions of different types of cells. There are cells that are organisms onto themselves, such as microscopic amoeba and bacteria cells. And there are cells that only function when part of a larger organism, such as the cells that make up your body. The cell is the smallest unit of life in our bodies. In the body, there are brain cells, skin cells, liver cells, stomach cells, and the list goes on. All of these cells have unique functions and features. And all have some recognizable similarities.


A virus is a non-living organism that takes steps to transfer its disease into a host. First the virus chooses a host cell inside the body. Then, the virus injects its DNA into the host cell. Next, the DNA now inside the host cell multiplies, and soon enough the newly made viruses breakout out of that host cell and each new virus chooses a new host cell and repeats the same procedure.


Virus picture on how the virus injects its own DNA into the cell.

Which then leads to the multiplying of virus' inside the cell and
eventually break out to do the same on other cells within the organism.


Bactria is known to be the smallest living organism. Alike archea, inside the bacteria is found to be ribosomes and a cell wall. The only difference is that the ribosomes are formed differently in the archea than they are formed in the bacteria. Bacteria is also known to multiply at a very rapid rate, and the only thing not allowing it to get bigger than the earth itself is the cell wall containing it at one maximum size. Bacteria does not seem to have a well, defined nucleus.

This is a diagram of a bacteria


Archea is much alike to bacteria except it'

s ribosomes are formed differently, meaning they do not function exactly the same. They are small single celled organisms that have a cell wall and do not have a well, defined nucleus. Archea are also found to be extremophiles. Extremophiles can live in extreme conditions such as high and low temperatures.

These are a few samples of archea

Animal Cell

Animal cells are very different from plant cells in many, many ways. Such as an animal cell has no cell wall and a plant cell does have a cell wall. An animal cell is only found in multicelled organisms, and plant cells are not.


external image celldiagram.jpg


This is a diagram of an animal cell.
This is a diagram of an animal cell that would be found in my favorite animal,the bear. All animal cells consist of many parts, such as endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), mitochondria, a nucleus, a plasmal membrane golgi apparatus, cilia, nucleolus, lysosomes, and ribosomes. Plant cell diagrams are different in many ways, such as an animal cell does not have a cell wall, but a plant cell does.

Animal Cell Organelles

Endoplasmic Reticulum-Endoplasmic reticulum is a group of tubules, vesicles and sacs that are interconnected.

Golgi Complex-The Golgi complex is found in most cells. It is packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum.

Ribosomes-The protein builders, or protein synthesizers of the cell.

Lysosomes- Lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes.

Nucleus- The main control particle in the cell, usually located in the center of the cell.

Mitochondria- A membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

Cell Membrane- The cell membrane is the outer layer of the cell that protects the inside.

Cytoskeleton- Inside the cell, they are objects that help the cell form its shape.

Vesicle- Transports things into and out of the cell.

Plant Cell

A plant cell is alike and different from the animal cell. It has a cell wall, and an animal cell does not. Plant cells are found in plantea, fungi, and monerea.


This is a diagram of a plant cell.

Plant Cell Organelles



Plasma Membrane


Golgi Apparatus


Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Cell Wall

Nuclear Envelope



Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum



This is a diagram of mitosis

Mitosis is the repeating cycle consisting of six stages.

Prophase- The nuclear envelope breaks down, and a spindle forms between two centrioles.

Prometaphase- The chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers.

Metaphase- The chromosomes align at the equator of the cell.

Anaphase- The chromatids are separated.

Telophase- The chromatids reach the mitotic poles, and the cell begins to pinch in.

Interphase- DNA is doubled in preperation for cell division.


Meiosis_II.low.jpgThese are the stages of meiosis 2.

Division of cells in which four "daughter" cells are produced from one "parent" cell, each with half the genes of the parent. Meiosis is a special kind of cell division that produces haploid cells.





My favorite animal is the bear because they look like

stuffed animals, but can rip you apart in a heart beat.



Nonvascular Plant- The three groups of plants (Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses) that lack specialized conducting tissues and true roots, stems, and leaves.

Vascular Plant- A plant that has specialized tissues that conduct materials from one part of the plant to another.

Gymnosperm- A woody, vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit.

Angiosperm - A flowering plant that produces seeds within fruit.

Rhizoid- A rootlike structure in nonvascular plants the holds the plants in place and helps the plant gets water and nutrients.

Rhizome- A horizontal, underground stem that produces new leaves, shoots, and roots.

Pollen- The tiny granules that contain the male gametophyte of seed plants.

Pollination- The transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the female structures of seed plants.